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铝合金定量炉-把好熔炼关对提升压铸技术水平是多么重要
作者: 发布于:2019-09-04 18:03:06 点击量:528

一、对再生铝的再认识

      FEIZALVZAISHENGSHI21SHIJILVGONGYESHENGCHANFAZHANZHONGDEYIGEREDIAN。TASHISUIZHELVGONGYEDEDANSHENGZHUBUZHUANGDAQILAIDE。XIFANGGUOJIAZAISHANGSHIJI30NIANDAIZHONGQIKAISHIXINGCHENGYIGEDULIDEXINGYE,ZHONGGUOZESHIZAISHANGSHIJI70NIANDAICHUQIKAISHISHOUDAOGUANZHU。ZAISHENGLVBENSHENSHIZIRANZIYUANDEZAILIYONG,JUYOUHENQIANGDESHENGMINGLI。ZAISHENGLVZAILVSHENGCHANZONGLIANGZHONGDEBILIYUELAIYUEGAO,RURIBENDA99.5%,YAZHUXINGYEYONGZAISHENGLVYISHIYIZHONGBIRANDEQUSHI。YUSHENGCHANYUANLVXIANGBI,YONGFEILVLIAOSHENGCHANZAISHENGLV,KEJIEYUE95%DENENGYUAN,ERYANGHUATANPAIFANGLIANGBIYONGSHUIDIANSHENGCHANYUANLVJIANSHAO91%,BIYONGRANYOUFADIANSHENGCHANYUANLVJIANSHAO97%YISHANG。MEISHENGCHAN1DUNZAISHENGLVJIEYUEYONGSHUI10.5DUN、SHAOPAIFANGERYANGHUATAN0.8DUN、SHAOPAIFANGERYANGHUALIUDENGYOUHAIQITI0.06DUN。ZAICHANLIANGXIANGTONGTIAOJIANXIA,SHENGCHANZAISHENGLVDEJIANCHANGTOUZIJINJINWEISHENGCHANYUANSHENGLVDESHIFENZHIYI。XIANRANJUYOUZHONGDAJIENENG、HUANBAOHEJINGJIYOUSHI。

棋牌评测网      YOUYUZAISHENGLVDEYUANCAILIAOZHUYAOSHIFEIZALVLIAO,FEIZALVZHONGYOUFEILVZHUJIAN(YIAl-SiHEJINWEIZHU)、FEILVDUANJIAN(Al-Mg-Mn、Al-Cu-MnDENGHEJIN)、XINGCAI(Al-Mn、Al-MgDENGHEJIN)FEIDIANLANXIAN(YICHUNLVWEIZHU)DENGGEZHONGGEYANGFEILIAO,YOUSHISHENZHIHUNZARUYIXIEFEILVHEJINDEFEILINGJIAN(RUZn、PbHEJINDENG),ZHEIJIUJIZAISHENGLVDEPEIZHIDAILAILEHENDUOYINHUAN。RUHEBADUOZHONGCHENGFENFUZADEFEILVLIAOPEIZHICHENGCHENGFENYUXINGNENGJUNHEGEDEZAISHENGLVDING,JISHIZAISHENGLVSHENGCHANDEHEXINWENTI,YESHIZUOWEISHIYONGZAISHENGLVCAILIAODEYAZHUCHANGJIABIXUGUANZHUDEWENTI。SHISHIZHENGMING,DUIZAISHENGLVDELEJIEYUESHENRU,WOMENDUIZAISHENGLVDESHIYONGHEKONGZHIJIUYUEKEXUE。

1) FEILVLIAODELAIYUAN

棋牌评测网      GUOWAIJINKOUDEHUNZAFEILVLIAOCHENGFENFUZA,CHUFEIZALVWAI,HAIHANYOUYIDINGSHULIANGDEFEIGANGTIE、FEIQIAN、FEIXINDENGJINSHUHEFEIXIANGJIAO、FEIMULIAO、FEISULIAO、SHIZIDENG,YOUSHIBUFENFEILVHEFEIGANGTIEJIXIEJIEHEZAIYIQI。HAIYOUYIXIESHIFENSHAOHOUDEHANLVSUILVLIAO,DANGCIJIAODI,ZHUYAOSHIGEZHONGBAOFEIJIAYONGDIANQIDENGDEFENSUIWU,FENXUANCHUYIBUFENFEIGANGHOUZAIJINGFENSHAOXINGCHENGDEWULIAO。ZHEILEIHANLVFEILIAOYIBANLVHANLIANGZAI40%~60%ZUOYOU,QIYUZHUYAOSHILAJI(ZHUANKUAISHIKUAI)、FEIGANGTIE、JISHAOLIANGDETONG(TONGXIAN)DENGYOUSEJINSHU。LVDEKUAIDUYIBANZAI10LIMIYIXIA,ZAIFENSHAODEGUOCHENGZHONG,YIXIELVHERONGDIANDIDEWUZHIRUXIN、QIAN、XIDENGDOURONGHUA,YUQITAWULIAOXINGCHENGBIAOMIANBOLIZHUANGDEWULIAO,NANYIBIANBIEHEFENXUAN。

棋牌评测网      GUONEIHUISHOUDEFEIZALVDADUOJIAOCHUNJING,JICHANGSHUODEFEISHULV,FEISHENGLVHEFEIHEJINLV。FEISHENGLVZHUYAOSHIFEIZHUZAOLVHEFEIHEJINLV。DUOYIFEIJIQILINGJIAN(RUFEIQICHELINGJIAN、FEIMOJU、FEIZHULVGUOPEN、NEIRANJIHUOSAIDENG)。FEISHULVYIBANZHILVHANLIANGZAI99%YISHANGDEFEILV(RUFEIDIANLAN、FEIJIAYONGCANJU、SHUIHUDENG)。FEIHEJINLVRUFEIFEIJILV、LVKUANGJIADENG。

      SHENGCHANQIYECHANSHENGDEFEILVLIAOYIBANCHENGWEIXINFEILIAO,ZHUYAOBAOKUOLVHEJINZAISHENGCHANJIJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEJIAOMAOKOU,BIANJIAOLIAO、FEICICAI、LVXIEMOJIFEIPINDENG。ZHEIXIEXINFEILIAOCHUZHANYOUYOUWUJIXIEMOWAI,DOUSHIDANGCIJIAOGAODEFEILVLIAO,RUGUOZAIQIYECHANSHENGFEILIAOSHINENGQINGXIDEFENLEIBAOCUN,LIYONGJIAZHIJIGAO。RONGLIANLVGUOCHENGZHONGBIRANCHANSHENGFUZHA,JICHANGSHUODELVHUI。FEIZALVDECHENGFENFUZA,ZAZHIYUEDUO,BIAOMIANWURANYUEYANZHONG,LVHUIJIUYUEDUO。LVHUIDEHANLVLIANGYUSUOXUANYONGDEFUGAIJIHERONGLIANJISHUYOUGUAN,YIBANHANLVLIANGZAI10%-20%。

      ZONGZHI,FEIZALVDEZUCHENGXIANGDUIBIJIAOFUZA,HANYOUJIAODUOWAILAIZAZHI,BAOKUOGEZHONGYOUJIZHIRUSULIAOLEIWUZHI、SHUIFENDENG,RONGLIANZHIQIANRUBUQINGLIGANJING,HUIZAOCHENGHEJINRONGTIYANZHONGXIQI,ZAISUIHOUDENINGGUGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGQIKONG、SHUSONGDENGQUEXIAN。CIWAIYIXIEFEILVJINSHUDEHUNRU,DAOZHICAILIAOCHENGFENBUHEGE,XINGNENGEHUA。GEZHONGFEIJINSHUKUANGWUDEHUNRUZAOCHENGDEFEIJINSHUJIAZA,YEHUISHICAILIAODEXINGNENGPINZHIXIAJIANG。YINCI,ZAISHENGLVSHENGCHANLIUCHENGDIYIZHONGYAOHUANJIEJIUSHIFEIZALVDEYUCHULI,YIJINKENENGDIJINGHUAYUANLIAO,BABULIYUZAISHENGLVZHILIANGDEYINSUJIANSHAODAOZUIDICHENGDU。ZHIYOUZHEIYANG,YAZHUCHANGCAINENGYONGSHANGFANGXINLVDING。

2)FEIZALVDEYUCHULI

棋牌评测网      FEIZALVYUCHULIDEMUDEYISHIQUCHUFEIZALVZHONGJIAZADEQITAJINSHUHEZAZHI,ERSHIBAFEIZALVANQICHENGFENFENLEI,SHIQIZHONGDEHEJINCHENGFENDEDAOZUIDACHENGDUDELIYONG。SANSHIJIANGFEIZALVBIAOMIANDEYOUWU、YANGHUAWUJITULIAODENGCHULIDIAO。YUCHULIZUIZHONGDEJIEGUOSHIJIANGFEILVCHULICHENGFUHERULUTIAOJIANDELULIAO,SISHISHIHANLVFEILIAOZHONGDELV(HANYANGHUALV)DEDAOZUIJINGJIZUIHELIDELIYONG。

      MUQIANFADAGUOJIAYIXINGCHENGWANSHANDEFEIZALVSHOUJI、GUANLI、FENJIANXITONG,SHIYINGBUDUANKUODADESHICHANGXUQIU, SHIXIANLEFEIZALVFENXUANDEJIXIEHUAHEZIDONGHUA,ZUIDAXIANDUDIQUCHUJINSHUZAZHIHEFEIJINSHUZAZHI,BINGANZHUHEJINCHENGFENBAFEILVFENCHENGJIDALEI,RUHEJINLV,LVMEIHEJIN、LVTONGHEJIN、LVXINHEJIN、LVGUIHEJINDENG。ZHEIYANGKEYIJIANQINGRONGLIANGUOCHENGZHONGDECHUZAJISHUHEDIAOZHENGCHENGFENDENANDU,BINGKEZONGHELIYONGFEILVZHONGDEHEJINCHENGFEN,YOUQISHIHANXIN,TONG,MEIGAODEFEILV,DOUYAODANDUCUNFANG,KEZUOWEIRONGLIANLVHEJINDIAOZHENGCHENGFENDEZHONGJIANHEJINYUANLIAO。MUQIANXIANJINDEFEIZALVYUCHULIJISHUZHUYAOYOU:

棋牌评测网A、FENGXUANFAFENLIFEIZHI、FEISULIAOHECHENTU。

B、CAIYONGCIXUANSHEBEIFENXUANCHUFEIGANGDENGCIXINGFEILIAO

C、YISHUIWEIJIEZHIDEFUXUANFAFENXUANQINGZHIZAZHI

棋牌评测网D、YONGPAOWUXUANKUANGFACONGFEILVZHONGFENXUANTONGDENGZHONGYOUSEJINSHU

棋牌评测网E、RONGJIJINPAOFEILVHUOHUIZHUANYAOBEISHAOFACHULIFEILVBIAOMIANTUCENG。

棋牌评测网F、DUIBAOFEIQICHEDENGDAXINGSHEBEICAIYONGJIXIECHAIJIEDEGAOXIAOLVLIUSHUIXIAN。

      YOUYUCAIYONGXIANJINJISHUDUIFEILVJINXINGYOUXIAODEFENXUAN,ZAIZIYUANDEZUIJIAPEIZHISHANGHUOQULELIRUNDEZUIDAHUA。

棋牌评测网      WOGUODUIFEIZALVDEHUISHOUYUCHULIZAIGUANNIANJIRENSHICHENGDUSHANG,YUFADAGUOJIAXIANGBI,CHAJUBIJIAOMINGXIAN。ZAISHENGLVQIYESHULIANGSUIRANPANGDA,DANSHENGCHANGAOZHILIANGZAISHENGLVDECHANGJIABUDUO,HAIYOUXUDUOZUOFANGSHIDEJIATINGQIYE;CAIYONGHUNLIANDEFANGSHISHENGCHAN,JISHUSHUIPINGDI,YIKAOSHOUGONGFENJIAN,YUCHULISHUIPINGKEXIANGERZHI,NENGYUANYUZIYUANLANGFEIDA;HUANJINGWURANYANZHONG;HUISHOUYUZUIZHONGXIAOSHOUJIAGENIUQU,CHUYUCUFANGJINGYINGGUANLIDESHUIPINGSHANG。RUDUIBIAOMIANYOUTUCENGHUOYOUWUDEFEILIAOYIBANBUZUORENHEYUCHULIJIUZHIJIERONGLIAN,SHIBUFENLVYANGHUA,BINGZENGJIALELVZHONGDEZAZHIHEQIPAO,QIHOUHUANWUQIONG。YINCIYAZHUCHANGJIAZAIXUANZEZAISHENGLVLIAOSHI,BUGUANGYAOBIJIAGE,HAIXUYAODUIGONGYINGSHANGZHIJIZHIBI,JIKAN“QIANDIAN”,YEYAOKAN“HOUCHANG”。

3)FEIZALVDERONGLIAN

      FEIZALVHEJINRONGLIANDEJIBENRENWUSHIHUODEFUHEGUIDINGCHENGFEN(BAOKUOZHUYAOZUYUANHUOZAZHIYUANSUHANLIANG)HEXINGNENGYAOQIUDELVHEJINYE。BINGZAIRONGLIANGUOCHENGZHONGCAIQUXIANGYINGDECUOSHIKONGZHIQITIJIYANGHUAJIAZAWUDEHANLIANG,BAOZHENGZHUDINGDEDAOSHIDANGDEJINGLIXIHUADEZUZHI。LVHEJINRONGLIANGUOCHENGYIBANRUXIA:

      ZHUANGLU→RONGHUA(TONGSHIANXUJIATONG、XIN、GUIDENG)→BAZHA→QUYANG→DIAOZHENGCHENGFEN→JIAOBAN→JINGLIAN→BAZHA→ZHUDING。

      YOUYULVYUANSUDETEXING,LVHEJINYOUQIANGLIEDECHANSHENGQIKONGDEQINGXIANG,TONGSHIYEJIYICHANSHENGYANGHUAJIAZA。YINCI,FANGZHIHEQUCHUQITIHEYANGHUAJIAZAJIUCHENGWEILVHEJINRONGLIANGUOCHENGZHONGZUITUCHUDEWENTI。FADAGUOJIAZAISHENGCHANZHONGBUDUANTUICHUXINDEJISHUCHUANGXINJUCUO,RUDICHENGBENDELIANXURONGLIANHECHULIGONGYI,SHIDIPINWEIFEIZALVSHENGJI,YONGFEIZALVYINENGDALIANGZHIZAOGONGYAZHU、YAZHIJIZUOMUHEJINYONGDEZAISHENGLVDING。ZAILVRONGLIANJISHUSHANG,KAIFALEGAOXIAO、JIENENGBINGQIEFUHEHUANJINGBAOHUYAOQIUDECEJINGFANSHELUHESHUANGSHIFANSHELU、YONGYULVXIEHUISHOUDEDUOSHIRONGLIANLU;CHULILVZHADEQINGXIESHIHUIZHUANLU;LEISILARSJISHU(Liquid Aluminum Refining System—SHIMUQIANGUOJIZUIXIANJINLVYEJINGLIANXITONGZHIYI)DECHUZACHUQIZHUANGZHI。TUIGUANGBINGYINGYONGLEYIXIEGAOXIAODEJINGLIANJINGHUAJISHU,XIANDAIHUAZIDONGKONGZHIDEZHUZAOJIEJINGJISHU,GAOXIAORANSHAOJISHUHEGENJULVHEJINDECHENGFENYAOQIUDIANNAOZIDONGKONGZHIDEWULIAOPEIBIXITONGRUANYINGJIAN。YOUDEDAXINGQICHEGONGSIHAIJIHUAHELVYEGONGSIJIANLIBIHUANLVFEILIAOHUISHOUZAISHENGXITONG。WOGUOCENGXIANGJIYINJINSNIF,MINT,ALPUR,RDUDENGXIANJINLVRONGTIZAIXIANJINGHUAJISHU,BINGZIZHUYANZHILEDDFDENGJISHU,DANCHUQINGSHUIPINGRENGYOUJIAODACHAJU。MUQIANWOMENYISHISHIJIEDIYIZAISHENGLVSHENGCHANDAGUO,MIANDUIZAISHENGLVXINGYEDEKUAISUFAZHANHEZHUDUOBUCHENGSHU,CONGXIANSHIYINGYONGDEJIAODU,WOMENGENGYINGZHONGSHIZAISHENGLVDECHANPINZHILIANGWENTI;PINZHONGJIEGOUWENTI;ZHILIANGJIANYANWENTI;SHICHANGWUXUJINGZHENGWENTIDENG,YAZHUGONGZUOZHEDUIJINYIBUTIGAOZAISHENGLVZHILIANGCHONGMANZHEQIDAI。

二、 再生铝的质量管理

      YOUYUYAZHUYEDELIRUNLVYUELAIYUEDI,YIXIEYAZHUCHANGDEGUANLIZHEYOUYUCHENGBENDEZHIYUE,JIAZHIDUILIEZHIZAISHENGLVWEIHAIXINGRENSHIBUZU,QUEFAJIANCESHOUDUAN,ZAIZAISHENGLVDINGZHILIANGHEJIAGEDETIANPINGSHANGPIANXIANGLEHOUZHE,DAOZHICHUXIANYIXILIEYAZHUZHILIANGWENTI,SHENZHIZAOCHENGZHIJIEJINGJISUNSHI。YINCI,YANGEZAISHENGLVDINGDEZHILIANGGUANLIYIBEIYUELAIYUEDUODEYOUSHIZHISHISUOZHONGSHI。

1) ZAISHENGLVZHILIANGFENXI

A、ZAISHENGLVYUANLIAOLAIYUANFUZA,CHENGFENKONGZHINANSHIBAOZHENGZHILIANGDEGUANJIANWENTI。HUISHOUFEILVLIAOZHONGYOU20YUZHONGYUANSU(Cu,Mg,Mn,Si,Ag,Ti,Be,Zn,Sn,Ni,Cr,Pb,Bi,V,Zr,Co,O)。DUIMOUXIEPAIHAODEHEJINSHIZHONGYAOTIANJIAYUANSU,DUILINGYIXIEPAIHAOHEJINZESHIYOUHAIWUZHI。YINCIZAISHENGLVYIBANYAOJIANGJISHIYONG。

B、非金属夹杂是导致废品的最主要缺陷。由此原因报废的再生铝锭达废品总量的10-25%。这些夹渣来源于高温熔体表面氧化膜破裂形成的碎片和炉渣,废料本身含大量氧化物及未处理干净的杂物等随铝液进入铸锭,来自一次合金处理的钛,硼聚集夹渣物,来自炉衬的耐火尖晶石颗粒,多元化合沉积物Al-Fe-Mn-Cu等。来自油和水的氢化物杂质,阳极化和表面涂层造成的夹杂物等。其中以氧化物夹渣最普遍。氧化夹渣在断口上呈暗褐色或灰色和金黄色等斑状。一般要求铸锭低倍试片不得多于两点夹渣,且单个面积小于0.5mm2

棋牌评测网C、ZAIRONGLIANHEZHUANZHUSHIYINTUANLIU,FANGUN,FEIJIANYINQIDEYANGHUAMO。TAHENBO,YUJITIJINSHUJIEHEJINMI,ZAIDIBEIZUZHIGUANCHAZHONGBUYIBEIFAXIAN。

D、用废料重熔会带入较多气体。有资料报导:从重量15KG的铝锭表面析出的水蒸气和氢气有373cm3,而15KG废铝板(2mm厚)表面析出量达6000cm3,而且,铝合金表面的氧化膜厚度室温下约为2.5-5.0μm;潮湿环境下,成复式氧化膜,内层为氧化物,外层含羟基化合物。在熔铝过程中,这些氧化夹杂物是部分气体的载体,残存于铝液中。对于长时间在潮湿环境中的铝废料,其表面有较厚一层Al(OH)3,内含的化合态水加热到300—400oC也不能除掉。在400oC以上才开始分解为γ-Al2O3和 H2O。这样的炉料即使预热,熔化后的再生铝锭中氢含量也大为增加。大约是原铝的10倍。

E、ZAISHENGLVDINGZHONGCHUXIANQIKONG,QIPI,QICENG,BIAOMIANJIAZA,LIEWEN,LIXUEXINGNENGBUHEGEDEXIANXIANG,ZHUYAOYUANYULVDINGZHONGDEPIANXI,RECUI,QITI,YANGHUAWUJIAZA,SUOSONG,LIEWEN,JINGLIZUZHIBULIANGJIHUAXUECHENGFENBUHEGUIFANYAOQIUDENGYINSU。

2) ZAISHENGLVDEZHILIANGJIANYAN

      MUQIANDUIZAISHENGLVDEJIANYANKEFENWEIHUAXUECHENGFENJIANYAN,JINXIANGZUZHIJIANYAN,BIAOMIANJIANYANHEXINGNENGJIANYAN。JINSHUZHONGHANQILIANGFENXIZHUYAOYIYETAIJINSHUCEQINGWEIZHU。

A、HUAXUECHENGFENJIANYAN:XIANDINGZAIXIANGYINGPAIHAODEBIAOZHUNCHENGFENFANWEINEI。CIWEIWAIXIANBIAOZHUNHUOGONGYEBIAOZHUN。YOUYUDALIANGFEILIAOHUILUSHIBIZENGJIAZAISHENGLVDINGZHONGDEZAZHICHENGFEN,WEILEQUEBAOWAIXIANBIAOZHUNSUOBIXUDEXIANDU,GENJUGONGCHANGDEJUTIQINGKUANGYINGZIXINGZHIDINGNEIXIANBIAOZHUN,BINGANCILAIYANSHOU。ZAOQIYONGHUAXUEFENXI,QIJIEGUOJINGQUE,DANCAOZUOFANZA,MUQIANDUOYONGYUXIAOYANQITAFENXIFANGFA。XIANZAIDADOUCAIYONGGUANGPUFENXI,QILINGMINDUGAO,SUDUKUAI,XUANZEXINGHAO,CHENGWEIJIANYANDEZHULIU。

B、ZUZHIJIANYAN:FENWEIHONGGUANHEWEIGUANJIANYAN。

      HONGGUANJIANYANSHIJIEZHUROUYANHUODIBEIFANGDAJING(XIAOYU30BEI)GUANCHAHEPANDUANZAISHENGLVDINGNEIBUSHIFOUYOULIEWEN,JIAZA,QIKONG,CHENGFENPIANXIJIBULIANGJINGLIZUZHIDENGQUEXIAN。YOUYULVDINGNEIBUQUEXIANDUOJIZHONGZAIJINBIAOCENG,HUOBIAOPISHANG,YINCITEBIEYAODUILVDINGDEBIAOMIANCONGXINGZHUANG,SUOKONG,QIKONG,YANGHUAWUJIAZAHEBIAOMIANLIEWENDENGFANGMIANJIANYAN。YIBANBUYUNXUYOULALIE,QIPAO,FUSHIBANDIAN,SUOKONG,GAOCHUBIAOMIANDEJINSHULIUDENG。

      WEIGUANZUZHIJIANYANSHILIYONGGUANGXUEJINXIANGXIANWEIJINGHUODIANZIXIANWEIJINGDENGCONGHAOMI,WEIMINAIZHINAMICHIDULAIGUANCHA,JIANBIEHEFENXIGEZHONGXIANGDEXINGMAO,JINGTIJIEGOUHEHUAXUEZUCHENGDENG。QIJIANYANBIAOZHUNZAICANKAOGUOJIABIAOZHUNDETONGSHI,YINGJIEHEZISHENDUIYAZHUJIANDEYAOQIUDIAOZHENG。

棋牌评测网C、LIXUEXINGNENGJIANYAN。LVHEJINLIXUEXINGNENGBAOKUOQIANGDU,SUXING,RENDUHEYINGDU,TAMENYUHUAXUECHENGFEN,ZUZHIJIEGOUYOUMIQIEGUANXI,SHIYAZHUQIANBIXUQUERENDE。YONGCAILIAOSHIYANJIHEGEZHONGBIAOZHUNDEJING,DONGTAIYINGDUCESHIYIKEYIWANCHENGDUILIXUEXINGNENGDEJIANYAN。

棋牌评测网D、DUANKOUJIANYAN。CHANGYONGLENG、RESUAN、JIANJINSHIHOUDUIZAISHENGLVDINGDEDUANKOUGUANCHA。CHANGYOUQUEXIANWEILIEWEN、JIAZHA、QIKONG、SHUSONG、BAIBANDENG。YEKEYIGENJUDUANKOUXINGZHUANGYONGROUYANCHUBUPANDUANZHILIANG。ZHILIANGHAODEZAISHENGLVDINGJINGLIJIAOXI,DUANKOUCHENGBAISESIRONGZHUANG,MEIYOUGUIJINGLILIANGDIAN。ZHILIANGCHADELVDINGZEJINGLICUDA,DUANKOUCHENGHUIANSEHUOLANHUISE,BINGYOUFALIANGGUANGDEGUIJINGLIKEJIAN。

三、 再生铝熔炼工艺特点分析

      YOUYUZAISHENGLVDINGYOUXUDUOXIANTIANBUZUDEQUEXIAN,JIAZHONGLEYAZHUCHANGZHONGRONGLVDINGSHIDEYEJINFUDAN。YINCIBIXUZAICHUANTONGRONGLIANGONGYIDEJICHUSHANG,ZUOBIYAODEDIAOZHENGHEJIYUGENGDUODEGUANZHU。

1)RONGLIANWENDUKONGZHIYAOHELI

  一般压铸铝合金熔化温度应控制在比浇铸温度高出20-50oC或750oC以下。若再提高10-40oC,氧化物含量会增加2-3%,这无疑使本来氧化物含量就高的再生铝液雪上加霜。若提高80oC,铝液中的氧化物含量增加20%;提高120oC ,则增加200%。当温度达到800-900oC时,铝液表面密度为3.5g/cm3的γ-Al2O3向密度4.0g/cm3的α-Al2O3转变,使表面体积发生约13%的收缩,原来连续致密的氧化膜收缩出现龟裂,使铝液向深层氧化。同时大量吸气,造成晶粒粗大。此外,铝的氧化物对于氢处于“活性状态”,容易吸附铝液中的氢气,构成(Al2O3棋牌评测网)XH 型络合物,使铝液越来越不干净。还要注意大熔池中铝液沿高度方向存在明显的温差。一般操作条件下每10mm厚度的温差为1.5—2.0oC,其影响铝液的质量稳定。

2)LVDINGRULUQIANYAOGANZAO

  LVDINGRULUQIANYAOGANZAO,QIZUOYEBINGBUFUZA,DANSHIRUOBULEJIEZHEIYANGZUODESHENCENGCIYUANYIN,WANGWANGBUBEIZHONGSHI,YIKENENGBUBEIJIANCHI。QISHITADUIYUZAISHENGLVYEDEJINGHUAHEQUQIFEICHANGZHONGYAO。BEISHUIFENQINSHIDELULIAORONGLIANSHIWURANJINSHUZUIYANZHONG,YOUBIYAODUICIZUOJIAOXIANGXIDETAOLUN。       

  研究表明,铝合金液溶解的气体中氢气占85%以上。而氢含量与水蒸汽直接相关。氢原子半径0.046nm,故易溶于铝液中。氮原子半径0.070nm,结构复杂的多元化合气体如CO2,CO,CH4等原子半径更大,因此比氢难溶。气体一般以三种形态存在于铝合金液中:

A、以分子态吸附在金属裂纹表面和显微疏松处,或形成气泡。100克铝液中含氢超过0.61cm3就会形成气孔,即以分子态残留。

B、ZAILVHEJINJINGTIDIANZHENJIANXICHUXINGCHENGJIANXISHIGURONGTI。

C、YIYANGHUAWU,DANHUAWUHEQINGHUAWUDENGJINSHUHUAHEWUMISANYUJINGLINEIHUOJINGJIESHANG。

QINGZAILVYEZHONGDERONGJIEDUFUHESievertDINGLV:

       0.jpg

     其中:S---氢在铝液中的溶解度cm3/(100gAl); m---常数;T--- 铝液温度K       

R---气体常数;  PH2O----铝液面上水蒸气分压Pa;Es---氢的溶解热J/mol

氢在铝液中溶解是吸热反应,Es>0, 故PH2O越大,T越高,则氢的溶解度就越大。

再生铝的表面和内部的氧化铝含量较原铝高。在3万倍电镜下γ-Al2O3膜内层致密,外表疏松,有大量5-10nm小孔,很易吸附水气,以Al2O3•nH2O形态存在。 

      在一般熔炼温度下常含1-2%的水。900oC仍吸附有0.34%的水。温度高于900oC时,转变为不密实的α-Al2O3 才能完全脱水。说明在通常熔炼温度下,铝熔体表面Al2O3膜层中,总是吸附一定量水。若入炉前未干燥,在250oC以下铝锭表面会有如下反应:

2Al + 6H2O=2Al(OH)3(系白色粉末)+3H2

棋牌评测网WENDUGAOYU400oCSHI,

2Al(OH)3=Al2O3 +3H2O

使更多的水气吸附在γ-Al2O3膜上并带入铝液。熔炼时这些γ-Al2O3棋牌评测网膜一旦搅入铝液中,则吸附在膜外表面的水与铝液剧烈化学反应,生成氧化铝和氢。

2Al + 3H2O = Al2O3+ 6[H]

△G= -78003 – 5.73TlogT + 32.95T

棋牌评测网      SHIGENGDUODESHUIQIXIFUZAIγ-Al2O3MOSHANGBINGDAIRULVYE。RONGLIANSHIZHEIXIEγ-Al2O3MOYIDANJIAORULVYEZHONG,ZEXIFUZAIMOWAIBIAOMIANDESHUIYULVYEJULIEHUAXUEFANYING,SHENGCHENGYANGHUALVHEQING。

棋牌评测网2Al + 3H2O = Al2O3 + 6[H]

△GT = -78003 – 5.73TlogT + 32.95T

     新生的氢[H]很易被铝吸收并向铝液内部扩散。在727oC,反应自由能∆G=-785KJ/mol, K=4.64×1013,, 反应向右进行,平衡常数很大。说明在铝液表面即使有微量水分,也会产生氧化物夹杂和单质的氢。当铝液凝固时,氢在铝液中的溶解度急剧下降,660oC时,100克铝液中氢的溶解度0.68cm3, 而固态100克中为0.036cm3棋牌评测网,溶解度下降18倍。来不及析出的氢最终导致压铸件气孔,针孔,渗漏等一系列问题发生。

      使熔体氢含量增加最显著的元素是镁。镁有很高的吸氢能力,在658oC,氢在镁中溶解度达100克镁60.1cm3, 比氢在铝中0.65cm3棋牌评测网高92.5倍。同时,MgO与 Mg的体积比小于1,在熔体表面形成疏松氧化膜,使吸氢速度增加。因此要注意再生铝中镁含量的控制。

3)DAZHAJINGLIANCHULIYAODEDANG

棋牌评测网      LIYONGRONGJIJINXINGDAZHAJINGLIANCHULI,SHICHUANTONGRONGLIANBIBUKESHAODEGONGYIHUANJIE。QIXIAOGUOQUJUEYURONGJIDEZHILIANG,CHULIWENDU,CHULIFANGFAHEJIARULIANG。RONGJIDEWULI、HUAXUEXINGNENG(RONGDIAN、MIDU、ZHANDU、HUIFAXING、XISHIXINGYIJIYUYANGHUAWUDEJIEMIANZUOYONGDENG)DUIJINGLIANXIAOGUOQIJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG。RONGJIDEPUSHIZUOYONGDAZHIYOUSIGEFANGMIAN:

A、GAIBIANLVRONGTIDUIYANGHUAWUDERUNSHIXING,SHIYANGHUAWU(ZHUYAOSHIYANGHUALV)YIYUYULVRONGTIFENLI,QIDABUFENJINRURONGJIZHONGERJIANSHAOLERONGTIZHONGDEYANGHUAWUHANLIANG。

B、GAIBIANRONGTIBIAOMIANYANGHUAMODEZHUANGTAI。SHIRONGTIBIAOMIANSHANGNEICENGJIANGUZHIMIDEYANGHUAMOPOSUICHENGWEIXIXIAOKELI,YINERYOULIYURONGTIZHONGDEQINGCONGYANGHUAMOCENGDEKELIKONGXIZHONGZUANCHU,JINRUDAQIZHONG。

C、RONGJICENGDECUNZAINENGGEJUEDAQIZHONGSHUIZHENGQIYULVRONGTIDEJIECHU,SHIQINGNANYIJINRULVRONGTIZHONG,TONGSHINENGFANGZHIRONGTIYANGHUASHAOSUN。

棋牌评测网D、XIFULVRONGTIZHONGDEYANGHUAWU,SHIRONGTIDEYIJINGHUA。

      ZONGZHI,RONGJIJINGLIANZHUYAOSHITONGGUOYURONGTIZHONGDEYANGHUAMOJIFEIJINSHUJIAZAWUFASHENGXIFU,RONGJIEHEHUAXUEZUOYONGLAISHIXIANDE。

       YOUYUZAISHENGLVHEJINDEJINGHUACHULIFUDANJIAOZHONG,YIBANDOUYAOSHIDANGTIGAORONGJIYONGLIANG。QITAGONGYICUOSHIRUCHUQIJINGLIANFANGFAKEYIXUNJIU,DANZUIZHONGYAODESHIDUIRONGJIPINZHIDEKAOLIANG。DANGQIANGUONEISHENGCHANLVRONGJIDEDANWEIHENDUO,LIANGYOUBUQI,YULONGHUNZA,JIAZHISHIYONGCHANGJIAWUXITONGYANSHOUJIJIANYANBIAOZHUN,SHIYIXIESUIJIALIANDANZHICISHENZHIWUYONGHUOYOUHAIDECHANPINJINRURONGLU。YIDANLVYECHUWENTI,HUOCHANPINCHUXIANYURONGJIZHILIANGYOUGUANDEHUANGBAN,CHUHAN,QIKONGDENGQUEXIAN,WANGWANGWUCONGFENXISHIZAISHENGLVLIAOZHILIANGDEWENTI,HAISHIRONGJIWENTI,HUOSHIGONGYIWENTI,YINCICHANGCHUXIANHUXIANGTUIWEI,BULIYUZHENGQUECHULI。YINCIYANGEBAHAORONGJIZHILIANGGUAN,SHIYONGYOUXINYUDEPINPAICHANPINZHIGUANZHONGYAO。   

棋牌评测网      CONGYEJINWULIHUAXUEDEJIAODU,WOMENXIWANGRONGJIYINGJUBEIYIXIATEDIAN:

   A、BUHELVYEFASHENGHUAXUEFANYINGHUOXIANGHURONGJIE。LUZHAZHONGZHIJIADAISHAOLIANGLV。

棋牌评测网   B、RONGJIRONGDIANDIYULVYEWENDU,QIELIUDONGXINGHAO,NENGZAILVYEBIAOMIANXINGCHENGLIANXUFUGAICENG。

棋牌评测网   C、NENGYOUXIAORONGHEYANGHUAWU,HUOSHENGCHENGYIHUIFADEQITI,ZAILVYENEICHANSHENGWEIXIAOQIPAO,YIKAOQIPAOSHANGSHENGGUOCHENGZHONGYUGUTAIZAZHIDIANDEGUANXINGPENGZHUANGHUOYUZHOUWEIZAZHIDIANXIANGJIECHUBINGBUZHUOZHI,CONGERYOUXIAOFUHUOLVYEZHONGDEWEIMIJIJIAZAWU。

棋牌评测网   D、YULVYEMIDUYOUMINGXIANCHABIE,YIYUSHANGFUHEFENLI。

   E、RONGRONGZHUANGTAIXIADERONGJIZHANDUYAOXIAO,YULVYEDEJIEMIANZHANGLIYAODA,FANGZHIXINGCHENGRONGJIJIAZAHUNRULVYEZHONG。

   F、KONGZHIRONGJIZHONGJIEJINGSHUIHANLIANG,BINGBAOCHIWULIGANZAO,FANGZHIRONGJIZHONGSHUIQIDUILVYEDEERCIWURAN。

  G、BUYINGHANYOUHUOCHANSHENGYOUHAIZAZHIJIQITI,YAOYOULIYUBAOHURONGLUHEJIXIESHEBEI,YOULIYUHUANBAO。

4)XITUXINGRONGJIDUITIGAOZAISHENGLVRONGLIANJINGHUASHUIPINGYINGXIANGSHENYUAN

      XUANYONGHANXITUDECHUZHAJINGLIANRONGJI,JIARULVYEHOU,CHUXIHUAZUOYONGWAI,LIYONGXITUYUQINGYOUJIAOQIANGQINHELIXINGCHENGXITUQINGHUAWUDETEDIAN,KEYISUOZHUGURONGTIZHONGDEQING。ZAILVRONGLIANWENDUFANWEINEI,(680--750︒C)XITUYUQINGHUAHEWUSHENGCHENGWENDINGDEQINGHUAWU:

[RE]+2[H]= [REH2

棋牌评测网      CIFANYINGXIFANGREFANYING,SUIWENDUXIAJIANG,GAIQINGHUAWUYUEJIAWENDING,CONGERDADAOGUQINGDEMUDE。RUOCAIQUXITU—DUOXINGQITILIANHEQUQI,QIXIAOGUOGENGHAO。

      XITUDUIYANGDEQINHELIDAYULVHEYANGDEQINHELI,GU[RE]NENGCONGYANGHUAJIAZAZHONGHAIYUANCHULV,JIANSHAOLEYANGHUALVJIAZA,XIAORUOLEYANGHUAJIAZADEXIQINGZUOYONG。   

2RE + Al2O3 = 2Al + RE2O3

      YANJIUFAXIAN,XITURONGJIZAILVYEJINGHUAZHONGCHANSHENGLIANGCENGBAOHUMO:NEICENG:YOUTIAOZHUANGXIANWEIBIANZHICHENGZHIMIBAOHUWANGLUO,XIFUJIAZAJIRONGJIYUJIAZADEFANYINGSHENGCHENGWUZHI。WAICENG:YOUJIEJINGTAIWUZHIGOUCHENG,QIGEJUEKONGQIBAOHURONGTIDEZUOYONG。

      WOGONGSIZAIHUODELIANGXIANGXITUFAMINGZHUANLI(ZL 2013 1 0228423.4  ZL 2016 1 0184371.9)DEJICHUSHANG,TUICHUDEHANXITULVSEHUANBAOXINGLV、XINHEJINYONGCHUZHAJINGLIANXILIERONGJI,JINGSHIYANHESHENGCHANYANZHENG,QIXIANZHUTEDIANSHI

棋牌评测网1) CAOZUOJIBENSHANGWUYANCHEN、WUDU、WUQIWEI,YUHUANJINGYOUHAO。

2) LVSUNHAOLVDI,LUZHACHENGSONGSANFENZHUANGGANXING,RONGYIHELVYEFENLI,ZHAZHONGHENSHAOLVHEJINCANLIU。RONGLVSUNHAOXIAO。 

3).JINGHUAXIAOLVGAO。

镁合金定量炉_副本.jpg

      DUIYANGHUALVDENGRONGZHAYOUGAODUJINRUNNENGLI,YOUZHUYUJIAZHADESHANGFU,NENGYOUXIAOQINGCHULVYENEIDEYANGHUAWUJIAZHA,TONGSHIXIANZHUJIANGDILVYEHANQILIANG。GONGCHANGSHIYANBIAOMINGYONGDANQIXISONGHUNCHUI,JINGHUACHULISHIJIAN:YUE15min-30min,QICHUQINGLVKEDA85%ZUOYOU。

      ZHONGXINDAIKAGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIGONGCHENGJISHUYANJIUYUANCAILIAOYANJIUSUO2015NIAN10YUEGUANYUGAIZHUANLICHANPINDESHIYANBAOGAOZHONGTIGONGDEZHONGYAOJIEGUORUXIA:            

1) GAIRONGJIZAI 700-760℃WENDUFANWEIJUNKESHIYONG。 

2) XITURONGJIBILIKEZAI 0.2wt%-0.4wt%ZHIJIANDIAOJIESHIYONG。 

3) SHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGKUAISUSHIFANGWANSHAOLIANGCIJIXINGQIWEIDEQITI,YANWUJIHUBUKEJIAN。 

棋牌评测网4) SHIYONGRONGJIHOU,XINGCHENGDEZHAWEISONGSANDEHUIBAISEZHA,QIEZHALVFENLIXIAOGUOLIANGHAO。 

5) K MODUANKOUWUKEJIANJIAZAWU。

6) XITURONGJIYOUCHUNAZUOYONG,DUIERCIZHIJINGJIANJUWUYINGXIANG。 

棋牌评测网      GAISUOYANFACHEJIANSHIYONGQINGKUANGBAOGAOJINYIBUZHICHU: 

7) XITUQINGZHAJIRUKAOLV K MOJIAZHA HELVHUISHOULV,TIANJIABILIWEI 0.25%XIAOGUOZUIJIA。 

8) YUMUQIANSHIYONGDEQINGZHAJIXIANGBI,TIANJIADENGLIANGDEXITUQINGZHAJI,DUI Mg DESHAOSUNLVGENGDI。 

棋牌评测网9) MIDUDANGLIANGJIEGUOBIAOMING,XITUQINGZHAJIDUICHUQIYOUCUJINZUOYONG。 

棋牌评测网10) TIANJIAXITUQINGZHAJIDUICHELUNLUNYUANDEGUOCHENGXINGNENGWUMINGXIANYINGXIANG。 

      LIANGNIANDUOLAI,GAICHANPINZAIYIXIESHANGSHIGONGSIYAZHUQIYE、GAOXINJISHUQIYEJIZHIMINGYAZHUQIYEYIZHENGCHANGPILIANGSHIYONG,DUIYUTISHENGZAISHENGLVDEJINGHUACHULISHUIPING、JIANGDICHENGBEN、GAISHANZUOYEHUANJING、TIGAOCHANPINXINGNENGXIAOGUOMINGXIAN。

      MIANDUIYAZHUJIEGOUJIANQINGLIANGHUAHEGONGNENGHUADUICAIZHIYUELAIYUEKEKEDEYAOQIU,YUELAIYUEDUODEYOUSHIZHISHICONGCHENGGONGHUOSHIBAIDEJINGYANZHONG,QINGXINGDIYISHIDAO,BAHAORONGLIANGUAN,JINGGONGXIZUO,YANFANG“BINGCONGKOURU”DUITISHENGYAZHUJISHUSHUIPINGSHIDUOMEZHONGYAO。ZHONGGUOSHISHIJIEDIYIXITUZIYUANDAGUO,ZAIXITUKAIFAYINGYONGLINGYUZHANJUJUEDUIYOUSHI,BAXITUYINGYONGYUTIGAOLVHEJINDERONGLIANZHILIANG,JISHICHUANGXIN,YESHITIAOZHAN,GENGSHIBAYOUSHIZHUANHUAWEIYOUZHIDEYIXIANGSHISHIZAIZAIDECHENGGUO。XITUZAIRONGLIANJINGHUAJISHUFANGMIANYINGYONGDECHUANGXINFAZHAN,WUYIYINGXIANGSHENYUAN。

 

   SANSHANNUOYONGYOULILUNJICHUGAO、GONGZUOJINGYANFENGFUDEYANFATUANDUI。ZHILIYUBAZHISHI、JINGYANZHUANBIANWEISHENGCHANLI,LIJINSUONENGDIWEIYONGHUFUWU、WEISHEHUIFUWU。PINGJIEYINJINSHIJIEXIANJINDEJISHU,SANSHANNUOGONGSILIYONGDIANCIGANYINGJIAREFANGMIANDEYOUSHI,YIDIANCIJIARERONGLUWEIJICHU,CHENGGONGKAIFALELVHEJINDINGLIANGLU、MEIHEJINDINGLIANGLUGAODUANRONGZHUSHEBEI,QIEZAIJIENENG、GAOXIAO、ZHINENG、ANQUAN、WENDINGDENGFANGMIANZOUJINSHIJIEQIANLIE。SANSHANNUORENJIANGYIRUJIWANGZAIXINCHANPINYANFA、GUANLIFANGMIANXIAGONGFU,LIZHENGZUOHAODIANCIGANYINGJIARECHENGTAOSHEBEIZAIRONGZHUXINGYEDELINGTOUYANG、PAITOUBING。